What Is Apple Cider Vinegar?
- What Is Apple Cider Vinegar?
- Biochemical Structure
- Health Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar
- Gastrointestinal Disorders
- Cardiovascular Disorders
- Varicose Veins
- Bone Health
- Skin Effect
- Enhances Energy Level
- Weight Reduction
- Antioxidative Effect
- Immune System
- Neuroprotective Effect
- Anticancer Effect
- Resipiratory Disorders
- Antituberculotic Effect
- Antibacterial Effect
- Antifungal Effect
- Side Effects
Apple Cider Vinegar is a plant based product and it is often produced from the apples in the households or industrial zones.
Its main compound is ethanol, that is being converted to acetic acid which adds the specific aroma to this product. Thus, Apple Cider Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid produced by an alcohol fermentation.
The most common types of Apple Cider Vinegar are dark golden and translucent.
It contains powerful vitamins and minerals of great value for human health such as pectin, vitamin C, B1, B2, B6, biotin, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid. Of minerals, in Health Benefits Of Apple Cider Vinegar there are potassium, sodium, phosphorus, calcium and iron. (1)
The main compound of apple cider vinegar is acetic acid (or ethanoic acid) that represent a translucent liquid with sour taste.
Acetic acid (CH3COOH)
Malic acid is as well present in apple cider vinegar. It is an organic dicarboxylic acid found in wines and other apple products. Malic acid is applied in cosmetic medicine due to its beneficial pH values, gastrointestinal disorders and as a detoxifier.
Health Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar
In vinegar there are numerous mineral salts, amino acids, polyphenolic substances (garlic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid) and nonvolatile organic acids (tartaric, citric, malic, lactic).
Polyphenols (flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols and anthocyanins) in apples are secondary plant metabolites. They are responsible for its aroma, colour and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular impairments
Pectin in apple cider vinegar is a fiber substance that is effective in the reduction of digestive spasms and better stool formation. Thus, it is applied in case of diarrhea and gastrointestinal irritability
Due to its effect on the acidity, it leads to the reduction of the number of microorganisms in digestive system.
Researches have found that vinegar has anti bactericidal effects on food-borne pathogens, such as
enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7. Thus, it is effective in food borne gastrointestinal infections, food poisoning as well its prevention.(2)
Vinegar apple cider consumption has been linked to the lower incidence of ischaemic heart disorders.
Due to the effect of alpha-linoleic acid, it decreases the incidence of heart rhythm disorders. (3)
In a recent study, it has been shown a beneficial effect of apple cider vinegar topical application on varicose veins. It is regarded as an additional measurement to a local varices treatment. (4)
The application of vinegar apple cider is highly effective in individuals with high blood pressure. It has been shown that may reduce significantly the systolic blood pressure when mixed with an acetic acid solution.
In addition, it decreases the plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone levels which aids to its antihypertensive effect. (5)
The use of vinegar apple cider has been implicated as beneficial factor in th reduction of high lipid and cholesterol levels. (6)
Pectin regulates glycemia levels due to inhibitory function on the digestive absorption of fructose. In healthy individuals, it has been shown that theuse of apple cider vinegar leads to the slower gastric emptying and decreases postporandial glycemia and insulin concentration. (7)
Apple cider vinegar is rich in calcium, thus has beneficial effect on the bone metabolism.
Apple cider vinegar has been used as a domestic regimen for certain skin conditions such as dandruff. It has a potential to eliminate the unnecessary number of the fungus Malassezia furfur. It is able to control the pH level of the scalp skin.
Apple cider vinegar is applied as a skin tonic in dermatology.
Enhances Energy Level
Apple cider vinegar is used as energetic stimulator due to its alkalizing attributes. It aids to the faster body recovery in case of a numerous disorders.
Apple cider vinegar has been used as a product for weight reduction. It may inhibit the accumulation of fat deposits and hepatic lipids in the organism. It is also of benefit in increasing the satiety.
Due to high vitamin C levels and phenolic compounds, apple cider vinegar has the power to reduce the extent of formed free radicals in the human organism. Oxidative radicals cause the damage of cells and may lead to cancer and premature aging. (8)
Procyanidins are a major group of antioxidant flavonoids in apples. Its main representatives in apple juice are epicatechin and procyanidin B2.(9)
Vitamin B6 is the most effective in stimulating the immune system reactions and protein catabolism.
Due to high levels of vitamin B complex, vinegar is effective in reducing the level of stress. It enhances as well memory and cognitive functions.
The application of vinegar apple cider has been shown to have positive effects in human leukemia cell HL-60. In such malignant cells, vinegar induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth.
The affected cells are colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (Caco-2), lung carcinoma (A549), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), bladder carcinoma (5637) and prostate carcinoma (LNCap) cells. (10)
Since ancient times, oxymel has been the most popular cough treatment. It consists of honey and vinegar and was prescribed by Hippocrates. (11)
Vinegar has been shown as a potent mycobactericidal regimen in individuals suffering from tuberculosis. (12)
The acetic acid in vinegar has been applied from ancient times as an antibacterial regimen. It is effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Apple cider vinegar may be effective in the treatment of individuals with Candida species oral stomatitis. (13)
In case of an aspiration of vinegar, laryngospasm and vasovagal syncope may be induced.
Hypokalemia has been reported as an adverse effect of high apple cider vinegar intake due to higher potassium excretion in acetate metabolism.
Apple cider is a moderate diuretic, thus it could lead to a more frequent urination.
In certain individuals, apple cider may lead to gastrointestinal or skin irritation.
The acetic acid may be responsible for the tooth enamel erosion or dental carries.
- Aleksandra Štornik,Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar. Food Technol Biotechnol. 2016 Mar; 54(1): 113–119.
- Entani E. Antibacterial action of vinegar against food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7.J Food Prot. 1998 Aug;61(8):953-9.
- Hu FB.Dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid and risk of fatal ischemic heart disease among women.Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 May;69(5):890-7.
- Atik D. .The Effect of External Apple Vinegar Application on Varicosity Symptoms, Pain, and SocialAppearance Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial.Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:6473678. doi: 10.1155/2016/6473678. Epub 2016 Jan 3.
- Kondo S.Antihypertensive effects of acetic acid and vinegar on spontaneously hypertensive rats.Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Dec;65(12):2690-4.
- Nazıroğlu M. Apple cider vinegar modulates serum lipid profile, erythrocyte, kidney, and liver membrane oxidative stress in ovariectomized mice fed high cholesterol.J Membr Biol. 2014 Aug;247(8):667-73.
- Hlebowicz J.Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.BMC Gastroenterol. 2007 Dec 20;7:46.
- Shoko Nishidai. Kurosu, a Traditional Vinegar Produced from Unpolished Rice, Suppresses Lipid Peroxidation in Vitro and in Mouse Skin
- Celestino Santos-Buelga. Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research.
- Brighenti F. Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood glucose and acetate responses to a mixed meal in healthy subjects.Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995 Apr;49(4):242-7.
- Carol S. Johnston,Vinegar: Medicinal Uses and Antiglycemic Effect.MedGenMed. 2006; 8(2): 61.
- Claudia Cortesia.Acetic Acid, the Active Component of Vinegar, Is an Effective Tuberculocidal Disinfectant.
- Mota ACAntifungal Activity of Apple Cider Vinegar on Candida Species Involved in Denture Stomatitis.J Prosthodont. 2015 Jun;24(4):296-302.